SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 7681-52-9

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE 

EINECS NO. 231-668-3
FORMULA NaOCl
MOL WT. 74.44

H.S. CODE

2828.90.0000
TOXICITY  
SYNONYMS

Sodium chloride oxide; Sodium oxychloride; Hypochlorite sodium;

Bleach Liquor; active chlorine; Hychlorite; Hipofosfito De Sodio; Hypochlorous acid sodium salt; Other RN: 8007-59-8, 56172-57-7, 102324-78-7, 227453-69-2
SMILES Cl[O-].[Na+]

CLASSIFICATION

Anti-Infective, Disinfectant, Water treatment

EXTRA NOTES

Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach or clorox, is frequently used as a disinfectant or a bleaching agent.
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 014703 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (12%)

PHYSICAL STATE Clear to yellowish liquid with Chlorine like odor
MELTING POINT

25 C

BOILING POINT 101 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.165
SOLUBILITY IN WATER 100%
pH 12 - 13
VAPOR DENSITY 1.3

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 3; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 1

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT

 

STABILITY Slowly decomposes on contact with air liberating Cl2

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking

Google Scholar Search

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - Sodium hypochlorite

PubChem Compound Summary - Sodium hypochlorite

IPCS INCHEM -  Sodium hypochlorite

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) -  Sodium hypochlorite

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ -  Sodium hypochlorite

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ -  Sodium hypochlorite

Human Metabolome Database - Sodium hypochlorite

Material Safety Data Sheet

http://www.chlorineinstitute.org/
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a solution made from reacting chlorine with a sodium hydroxide solution. These two reactants are the major co-products from most chlor-alkali cells. Sodium hypochlorite has a variety of uses and is an excellent disinfectant/antimicrobial agent. The Institute has developed a manual for sodium hypochlorite users and a safety video for users and handlers of the chemical. These products can be ordered on this website in the CI Bookstore.

http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/
Calcium hypochlorite is generally available as a white powder, pellets, or flat plates. It decomposes readily in water or when heated,releasing oxygen and chlorine. It has a strong chlorine odor, but odor may not provide an adequate warning of hazardous concentrations. Calcium hypochlorite is not flammable, but it acts as an oxidizer with combustible material and may react explosively with ammonia, amines, or organic sulfides. Calcium hypochlorite should be stored in a dry, well ventilated area at a temperature below 120 °F (50°C) separated from acids, ammonia, amines,and other chlorinating or oxidizing agents. Sodium hypochlorite is generally sold in aqueous solutions containing 5 to 15% sodium hypochlorite, with 0.25 to 0.35% free alkali (usually NaOH) and 0.5 to 1.5% NaCl. Solutions of up to 40% sodium hypochlorite are available, but solid sodium hypochlorite is not commercially used. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are a clear, greenish yellow liquid with an odor of chlorine. Odor may not provide an adequate warning of hazardous concentrations. Sodium hypochlorite solutions can liberate dangerous amounts of chlorine or chloramine if mixed with acids or ammonia. Anhydrous sodium hypochlorite is very explosive. Hypochlorite solutions should be stored at a temperature not exceeding 20 °C away from acids in well-fitted air-tight bottles away from sunlight.

Local:
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), is commercially available in several solution concentrations, with 12% being the most common for bulk, as this material is highly unstable salt which become sodium chlorate easily. It is formed by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution when chlorine is bubbled through cold caustic soda solution. Its powerful disinfection and oxidation properties offer a wide range of applications include bleaching in both the paper and textile industries, water purification, odour control, chemical Intermediates and etc. Sodium hypochlorite is used in household bleach material to remove stains particularly on cotton. Chlorine is a general biocide substance killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, etc. The most widely used chloride chemical disinfectants are chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide and chloramine. Hypochlorite is an alternative choline source when chlorine gas is impractical. The commercially available liquid hypochlorite form is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) which is used as the disinfectant in hospitals. But this is highly caustic, ethanol class disinfection has replaced. Sodium hypochlorite have also been used extensively in the disinfection of drinking-water. Hypochlorite anion,ClO-, changes the oxidation-reduction potential of the cell, and resulting in the inactivations of the micro-organism's function. Hypochlorite [or chlorate(I)] contains the ion, ClO- ; chlorite [or chlorate(III)], ClO2-; Chlorate [or chlorate(V)], ClO3-; perchlorate [or chlorate(VII)], ClO4-. Hypochlorite solution gradually releases chlorine into water.  Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching and disinfection agent for both industry and household, oxidant, sterilizer, decoloring agent, deodorant, water Treatment amd food additive.

Sodium hypochlorite phosphate, an inclusion complex of trisodium phosphate and sodium hypochlorite, is a dry form of sodium hypochlorite. providing germicidal and disinfectant properties as well as alkalinity. It is used in as a bactericide in food and dairy processing and cleanser of medical instruments and scouring. It is used in detergents, automatic dishwasher detergent and laundry soaps.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CHLORINE: Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor. Chlorine belongs to the halogen family of elements, found in group VIIa of the periodic table. Chlorine is produced mostly by electrolysis of brine; some is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of sodium metal by the electrolysis of sodium chloride either molten or in solution. Chlorine is soluble in water. Its aqueous solution ( called chlorine water) consists of a mixture of chlorine, hydrochloric acid, and hypochlorous acid; only a part of the chlorine introduced actually goes into solution, the major part reacting chemically with the water. Chlorine water has strong oxidizing properties resulting from the oxygen set free when the unstable hypochlorous acid decomposes. Chlorine combines directly with almost all the elements except the rare gases, excluding xenon, and nitrogen. Besides the -1 oxidation state of the chlorides, chlorine also exhibits oxidation state respectively : +1 (hypochlorite, ClO- ), +3 (chlorite, ClO-2), +5 (chlorate, ClO-3 ) and +7 (perchlorate, ClO-4). Very reactive and unstable four oxide compounds have been indirectly synthesized; chlorine monoxide (Cl2O), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), dichlorine hexoxide (Cl2O6), and dichlorine heptoxide (Cl2O7). Uncombined chlorine does not occur in nature due to its activity, but its compounds are numerous. Chlorine can displace the heavier halogens, bromine and iodine, from their ionic compounds and undergoes addition or substitution reactions with organic compounds. Chlorine is used in water purification; as a disinfectant and as an antiseptic (mercuric chloride). Chlorine is a general biocide substance killing germs, micro-organisms, algae, etc. The most widely used chloride chemical disinfectants are chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide and chloramine.

Chloramine is an ammonium containing chlorine disinfectant. Monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine are in equilibrium when produced by the chemical chloramination of ammonia. Monochloramine is the only effective ammonia-chloramine disinfectant. Dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) are too unstable to be useful and highly malodorous. Production conditions are practically employed for the production of monochloramine by lowering the pH and adjusting the molar ratios of the reactants. Chloramine is a toxic yellow liquid at room temperature. Due to high CT values, chloramine is a poor primary disinfectant but is an attractive secondary disinfectant for the maintenance of a stable distribution system residual and eliminating the formation of chlorination by-products. Chloramine is one of the most widely used chemical disinfectants in drinking water system. Chloramine-B and Chloramine-T are antiseptic agents derived from combining chloramine and benzenesulfonamide (or p-toluenesulfonamide) repectively. Sulfonamide molecular structure is similar to p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) which is needed in bacteria organisms as a substrate of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). Sulfonamides are capable of interfering with the metabolic processes in bacteria that require PABA. They act as antimicrobial agents by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity. Chloramine B and Chloramine B are used as an oxidizing agent, an antiseptic, a germicide as well as a chlorinating agent in organic synthesis. Its ions resulting from dissolving in water involve in interfering with micro-organisms' cell process by oxidations of proteins or enzyms.

Hypochlorite is an alternative choline source when chlorine gas is impractical. The commercially available liquid hypochlorite form is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) which is used as the disinfectant in hospitals. But this is highly caustic, ethanol class disinfection has replaced. Sodium hypochlorite have also been used extensively in the disinfection of drinking-water. Hypochlorite anion,ClO-, changes the oxidation-reduction potential of the cell, and resulting in the inactivations of the micro-organism's function. Chlorine is used to bleach fabrics, woodpulp and paper, to clean dairy equipment, to control biofouling in cooling systems, to shrink-proof wool, and to detin and dezinc iron. Chlorine are used directly or as an intermediate for the synthesis of many organic chemicals; pesticides, antifreeze, refrigerants, antiknock compounds, synthetic rubber and plastics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polyvinyl chloride, ethylene dichloride hypochlorous acid, chlorobenzene, chlorinated lime, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene and propylene oxides, glycols, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, chloroform, vinylidene chloride, polychloroproprene, hydrogen chloride, metal chlorides, chloracetic acid, chloral, synthetic glycerine, methyl chlorides, chlorinated benzenes, tetraethyl lead, fluorine compounds, titanium tetrachloride, monochloroacetic acid, phosgene, chloroisocyanuric acid, phosphorus chloride dichlorobutene, and chlorinated paraffins.

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

Clear to yellowish liquid
CONCENTRATION
12.0% - 14.0%

pH

11 min

Cl

11.4% min

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING  
HAZARD CLASS 8 (Packing group:III)
UN NO. 1791
SAFETY INFORMATION

HAZARD OVERVIEW

OSHA Hazards: Corrosive

GHS

 

SIGNAL WORD Danger

PICTOGRAMS

HAZARD STATEMENTS

H314-H400

P STATEMENTS

P273-P280-P305 + P351 + P338-P310

EC DIRECTIVES

 

HAZARD CODES

RISK PHRASES

31-34-50

SAFETY PHRASES

26-36/37/39-45-61

PRICE INFORMATION