BENZOIC ANHYDRIDE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 93-97-0

BENZOIC ANHYDRIDE

EINECS NO. 202-291-1
FORMULA (C6H5C=O)2O
MOL WT. 226.23
H.S. CODE 2916.39.0300

TOXICITY

 
SYNONYMS Benzoyl anhydride;
Benzoyl benzoate; Phenyl anhydride; Benzoesäureanhydrid (German); Anhídrido benzoico (Spanish); Anhydride benzoïque (French);

SMILES

c1(C(OC(c2ccccc2)=O)=O)ccccc1

CLASSIFICATION

Carboxylic acid anhydrides,

EXTRA NOTES

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE White to off-white flakes
MELTING POINT 39 - 42 C
BOILING POINT 360 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.199
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Insoluble
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY 7.8
AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health hazard: 2, Flammability: 1, Physical hazards: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT > 110.00 C
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions. Moisture Sensitive.

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking

Google Scholar Search

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - Benzoic Anhydride

PubChem Compound Summary - Benzoic Anhydride

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/ -  Benzoic Anhydride

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ -  Benzoic Anhydride

Local:
Benzoic acid, the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid containing carboxyl group bonded directly to benzene ring, is a white, crystalline organic compound; melting at 122 C (starting sublime at 100 C);  boiling at 249 C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, very slightly soluble in benzene and acetone. Its aqua solution is weakly acidic. It occurs naturally in many plants  and resins. Benzoic acid is also detected in animals. The most of commercial benzoic acid is produced by the reaction of toluene with oxygen at temperatures around 200 C in the liquid phase and in the presence of cobalt and manganese salts as catalysts. It can be prepared also by the oxidation of benzene with concentrated sulphuric acid or carbon dioxide in the presence of catalysts. Other methods are such as by the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cinnamic acid; by hydrolysis of benzonitrile, benzoyl chloride. More than 90% of commercial benzoic acid is converted directly to phenol and caprolactam. Its use in the production of glycol benzoates for the application of plasticizer in adhesive formulations is increasing. It is also used in the manufacture of alkyd resins and drilling mud additive for crude oil recovery applications. It is used as a rubber polymerization activators and retardants. Benzoic acid is converted to its salts and esters for the use of preservative application in foods, drugs and personal products. Sodium benzoate, sodium salt of benzoic acid, is used preferably as one of the principal anti-microbial preservatives used in foods and beverages (but it's concentration is limited usually not exceeding 0.1% because it is poisonous), as it is about 200 times more soluble than benzoic acid. Sodium Benzoate is also used in medications, anti-fermentation additives and tabletting lubricant for pharmaceuticals. The industrial applications are as a corrosion inhibitor, as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems, as a nucleating agents for polyolefin, as a dye intermediate, as a stabilizer in photographic processing and as a catalyst. Wide range of benzoic esters are used as solvents, dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent and pesticides and manufacturing other compounds.

Benzoic Anhydride, an aromatic acid anhydride, is used in synthesis of some dyes and a variety of organic compounds.

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

White to off-white flakes

PURITY

99.0% max

FREE ACID

0.5% max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING  
HAZARD CLASS  
UN NO. Not regulated

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANHYDRIDE

Anhydride is a compound formed by the abstraction of a molecule of water, H2O, from a substance. The term acid anhydride is restricted sometime to the anhydride formed especially from an acid by dehydration or one that revert to the original substance upon hydration. In case of bimolecular, it can be composed of two molecules of the corresponding acid. The term mixed anhydride is an acid anhydride composed of two different acids. Examples are adenosine triphosphate or an aminoacyl adenylate. The anhydrides of bases are oxides.

Anhydrides of inorganic acids are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the anhydride of carbonic acid, dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) is the anhydride of nitric acid, sodium oxide is an anhydride of sodium hydroxide, phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) is the anhydride of phosphoric acid, and sulfur trioxide (SO3) is the anhydride of sulfuric acid. An acid anhydride forms an acid; a base anhydride forms a base. Sulfur trioxide (acid anhydride) reacts with water to form sulfuric acid (an acid product). Calcium oxide (an base anhydride) reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide (a base product).

Organic anhydrides contain the carbonyl group (CO). Organic anhydrides are formed by the condensation of original acids. Lactone, an internal cyclic monoester, is an anhydride derived from the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals. In organic chemistry, most anhydride compounds are derived from corresponding carboxylic acids. Carboxylic anhydrides, general formula (RCO)2O, are the dehydration product of two carboxylic acid molecules. The name of carboxylic anhydride is given first from the original acid, followed by the separate word "anhydride". [CH3(CH2)2CO]2O is butanoic anhydride, CH3COOCOCH2CH3 is ethanoic propanoic anhydride (or acetic propionic anhydride). Anhydrides are more reactive than the parent acids. Anhydrides are typically not target molecules, but rather they are used as intermediates for the synthesis of other organic members such as esters and amides for the industrial applications include dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, plastics, fibers, curing agents, plasticizers and many others. The reactivity of carboxylic acid derivatives are in order of acyl halides > anhydrides >> esters acids >> amides.  Anhydrides react with alcohols to form esters; acetic anhydride [(CH3CO)2O] reacts with ethanol (C2H5OH) to form ethyl acetate (CH3COOC2H5) used as a common solvent. Anhydrides also react with ammonia and primary or secondary amines to form amides. Anhydrides react with water to form their corresponding acids.

SAFETY INFORMATION

HAZARD OVERVIEW

OSHA Hazards:Irritant

GHS

 

SIGNAL WORD

Danger

PICTOGRAMS

HAZARD STATEMENTS

H303-H315-H318-H335

P STATEMENTS

P261-P280-P305 + P351 + P338

EC DIRECTIVES

 

HAZARD CODES

RISK PHRASES

37/38-41

SAFETY PHRASES

26-39

PRICE INFORMATION