FORMIC ACID

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO.

64-18-6

FORMIC ACID

EINECS NO. 200-579-1
FORMULA

HCOOH

MOL WT.

46.03

H.S. CODE 2915.11

TOXICITY

Oral rat LD50: 1100mg/kg
SYNONYMS Hydrogencarboxylic acid; aminic acid; formylic acid; Formic acid;
Methanoic acid; Acide Formique (French); Acido Formico (Italian); Ameisensaeure (German); Kwas Metaniowy (Polish); Kyselina Mravenci (Czech); Ameisensäure; Mierenzuur (Dutch); ácido fórmico (Spanish); Acide Formique (French); Other RN: 8006-93-7, 82069-14-5

SMILES

C(O)=O

CLASSIFICATION

Carboxylic acid

EXTRA NOTES

UN1779 [Corrosive]
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 214900

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE colorless liquid with a pungent odor
MELTING POINT 8.3 C
BOILING POINT

100.7 C

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.21
SOLUBILITY IN WATER miscible
pH

 

VAPOR DENSITY 1.6

log P

-0.54

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 2; Flammability: 2; Reactivity: 1
FLASH POINT

69 C

STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking

Google Scholar Search

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - Formic acid

PubChem Compound Summary - Formic acid

Drug Bank -  Formic acid

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) -  Formic acid

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ -  Formic acid

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ -  Formic acid

Human Metabolome Database - Formic acid

Material Safety Data Sheet

Local:
Formic acid, also called methanoic acid), is  the simplest and has the lowest mole weight of the carboxylic acids, in which a single hydrogen atom is attached to the carboxyl group (HCOOH). If a methyl group is attached to the carboxyl group, the compound is acetic acid. It occurs naturally in the body of ants and in the stingers of bees. Functionally, it is not only an acid but also an aldehyde; it reacts with alcohols to form esters as an acid and it is easily oxidized which imparts some of the character of an aldehyde. Pure formic acid is a colorless, toxic, corrosive and fuming liquid, freezing at 8.4 C and boiling at 100.7 C. It is soluble in water, ether, and alcohol. It irritates the mucous membranes and blisters the skin. It is prepared commercially from sodium formate with the reaction of condensed sulfuric acid. Formic acid is used as a chemical intermediate and solvent, and as a disinfectant. It is also in processing textiles and leathers, electroplating and coagulating latex rubber.
APPLICATION:
It is used for decalcifier; reducer in dyeing for wool fast colours; dehairing and plumping hides; tanning; electroplating; coagulating rubber latex; silage and grain preservation; aidditive in regenerating old rubber; solvents of perfume; lacquers;  alkylating agent for alcohols; carboxylating agent for tertiary compounds. It is also used as an intermediate for the production of a wide variety of products in the chemicals and pharmaceutical industries.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID: Carboxylic acid is an organic compound whose molecules contain carboxyl group and have the condensed chemical formula R-C(=O)-OH in which a carbon atom is bonded to an oxygen atom by a solid bond and to a hydroxyl group by a single bond), where R is a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group, or an aryl group. Carboxylic acids can be synthesized if aldehyde is oxidized. Aldehyde can be obtained by oxidation of primary alcohol. Accordingly, carboxylic acid can be obtained by complete oxidation of primary alcohol. A variety of Carboxylic acids are abundant in nature and many carboxylic acids have their own trivial names. Examples are shown in table. In substitutive nomenclature, their names are formed by adding -oic acid' as the suffix to the name of the parent compound. The first character of carboxylic acid is acidity due to dissociation into H+ cations and RCOO- anions in aqueous solution. The two oxygen atoms are electronegatively charged and the hydrogen of a carboxyl group can be easily removed. The presence of electronegative groups next to the carboxylic group increases the acidity. For example, trichloroacetic acid is a stronger acid than acetic acid. Carboxylic acid is useful as a parent material to prepare many chemical derivatives due to the weak acidity of the hydroxyl hydrogen or due to the difference in electronegativity between carbon and oxygen. The easy dissociation of the hydroxyl oxygen-hydrogen provide reactions to form an ester with an alcohol and to form a water-soluble salt with an alkali. Almost infinite esters are formed through condensation reaction called esterification between carboxylic acid and alcohol, which produces water. The second reaction theory is the addition of electrons to the electron-deficient carbon atom of the carboxyl group. One more theory is decarboxylation (removal of carbon dioxide form carboxyl group). Carboxylic acids are used to synthesize acyl halides and acid anhydrides which are generally not target compounds. They are used as intermediates for the synthesis esters and amides, important derivatives from carboxylic acid in biochemistry as well as in industrial fields. There are almost infinite esters obtained from carboxylic acids. Esters are formed by removal of water from an acid and an alcohol. Carboxylic acid esters are used as in a variety of direct and indirect applications. Lower chain esters are used as flavouring base materials, plasticizers, solvent carriers and coupling agents. Higher chain compounds are used as components in metalworking fluids, surfactants, lubricants, detergents, oiling agents, emulsifiers, wetting agents textile treatments and emollients, They are also used as intermediates for the manufacture of a variety of target compounds. The almost infinite esters provide a wide range of viscosity, specific gravity, vapor pressure, boiling point, and other physical and chemical properties for the proper application selections. Amides are formed from the reaction of a carboxylic acids with an amine. Carboxylic acid's reaction to link amino acids is wide in nature to form proteins (amide), the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells. Polyamide is a polymer containing repeated amide groups such as various kinds of nylon and polyacrylamides. Carboxylic acid are in our lives.

ALIPHATIC CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

COMMON NAME

SYSTEMATIC NAME

CAS RN

FORMULA

MELTING POINT

Formic Acid

Methanoic acid 64-18-6

HCOOH

8.5 C
Acetic AcidEthanoic acid64-19-7CH3COOH

16.5 C

Carboxyethane Propionic Acid 79-09-4CH3CH2COOH

-21.5 C

Butyric Acidn-Butanoic acid 107-92-6CH3(CH2)2COOH

-8 C

Valeric Acidn-Pentanoic Acid 109-52-4CH3(CH2)3COOH

-19 C

Caproic Acidn-Hexanoic Acid 142-62-1CH3(CH2)4COOH

-3 C

Enanthoic Acidn-Heptanoic acid 111-14-8CH3(CH2)5COOH

-10.5 C

Caprylic Acidn-Octanoic Acid 124-07-2CH3(CH2)6COOH

16 C

alpha-Ethylcaproic Acid2-Ethylhexanoic Acid 149-57-5CH3(CH2)3CH(C2H5)COOH

-59 C

Valproic Acid2-Propylpentanoic Acid 99-66-1(CH3CH2CH2)2CHCOOH

120 C

Pelargonic Acidn-Nonanoic Acid 112-05-0CH3(CH2)7COOH

48 C

Capric Acid n-Decanoic Acid 334-48-5CH3(CH2)8COOH

31 C

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

colorless liquid with a pungent odor
FORMIC ACID

85.0% min

COLOR, APHA

10 max

CHLORIDE (Cl)

5ppm max

NONVOLATILES

50ppm max

Fe

5ppm max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 240kgs in drum, 20mts in Iso-Tank
HAZARD CLASS 8 (Packing group: II)
UN NO. 1779

REGISTRY NUMBER OF FORMIC ACID SALTS

141-53-7 (hydrochloride), 540-69-2, 70179-79-2 (ammonium), 544-17-2 (calcium), 544-18-3 (cobalt(+2)), 544-19-4 (copper(+2)), 556-63-8 (lithium), 557-39-1 (magnesium), 557-41-5 (zinc), 590-29-4 (potassium), 592-89-2 (strontium), 811-54-1 (lead(+2)), 992-98-3 (thallium(+1)), 3349-06-2 (nickel(+2)), 3495-36-1 (cesium), 3495-35-0 (rubidium), 4464-23-7 (cadmium), 7056-83-9 (lead), 7360-53-4 (aluminum), 15843-02-4 (nickel), 15907-03-6 (copper), 27115-36-2 (chromium), 63182-21-8 (chromium hydrochloride), 68134-59-8 (copper-nickel), 68310-83-8 (copper-ammonium)

PRICE INFORMATION