BENZOIC ACID

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO.

65-85-0

BENZOIC ACID

EINECS NO. 200-618-2
FORMULA

C6H5COOH

MOL WT. 122.12
H.S. CODE 2916.31.1105

TOXICITY

Oral rat LD50: 1700 mg/kg
SYNONYMS Benzenemethanoic acid; Carboxybenzene;
Acide benzoique (French); Acido benzoico; Benzenecarboxylic acid; Benzeneformic acid; Benzoate; Benzoesaeure; Carboxybenzene; Dracylic acid; Flowers of benjamin; Flowers of benzoin; Phenylcarboxylic acid; Phenylformic acid; Salvo liquid; Salvo powder; Benzoesäure (German); ácido benzoico (Spanish); Acide benzoïque (French); Kyselina benzoova (Czech); Dracylic acid; Other RN: 8013-63-6, 331473-08-6

SMILES

c1(ccccc1)C(=O)O

CLASSIFICATION

Carbocyclic carboxylic acid, Preservative, Antifungal agent

EXTRA NOTES

A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to glycine in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE

white crystalline flakes

MELTING POINT 122 C
BOILING POINT

249 C

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.321
SOLUBILITY IN WATER 0.29 g/100 ml
SOLVENT SOLUBILITY Soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether
pH 2.8 (saturated solution at 25 C)
VAPOR DENSITY 4.2

AUTOIGNITION

571 C

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 2; Flammability: 1; Reactivity: 0
FLASH POINT

121 C

STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking

Google Scholar Search

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - Benzoic acid

PubChem Compound Summary - Benzoic acid

IPCS INCHEM -  Benzoic acid

Drug Bank -  Benzoic acid

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) -  Benzoic acid

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/ -  Benzoic acid

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ -  Benzoic acid

Material Safety Data Sheet

Human Metabolome Database - Benzoic acid

http://www.inchem.org/
Production and use:
Benzoic Acid:Worldwide production capacity is estimated at 700 kt per year. Average operating rate is at max 80% resulting in a production of 560 kt benzoic acid per year. The major outlet (75%) for benzoic acid is in the production of phenol, which in turn is mainly used to produce caprolactam. The next biggest outlet is as a feedstock for sodium benzoate (10%) and chemical synthesis of plasticizers (5%). Benzoic acid is therefore mainly (>80%) used as a chemical intermediate for synthesis of other chemicals, as well as for the production of sodium salt (10%). So it has mainly a controlled use in industrial settings.
Sodium Benzoate:Worldwide production capacity is estimated at 100 kt per year. Average operating rate is at max 75% resulting in a production of 75 kt sodium benzoate per year. The major outlet for sodium benzoate is as a preservative in food and beverages (60%). Second most important market is cooling liquids (10%). The main function of sodium benzoate in most applications is as a preservative.
Potassium Benzoate: Worldwide production capacity is estimated at 7 kt per year. It is used as a preservative in nonalcoholic beverages.
Benzyl Alcohol: Worldwide production capacity is estimated at 50 kt per year. Average operating rate is at max 80% resulting in a production of 40 kt benzyl alcohol per year. The major use for benzyl alcohol is as a curing agent in epoxy coatings (30%), where it becomes chemically bound after reaction. Other important uses are as a solvent in low concentrations in waterborne coatings (10%), and use in paint strippers (10%) and as chemical intermediate for synthesis of benzyl esters that are used in the Flavor and Fragrance industry (10%). The use in paint strippers is limited to uses in industrial settings.

Local:
Benzoic acid, the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid containing carboxyl group bonded directly to benzene ring, is a white, crystalline organic compound; melting at 122 C (starting sublime at 100 C);  boiling at 249 C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, very slightly soluble in benzene and acetone. Its aqua solution is weakly acidic. It occurs naturally in many plants  and resins. Benzoic acid is also detected in animals. The most of commercial benzoic acid is produced by the reaction of toluene with oxygen at temperatures around 200 C in the liquid phase and in the presence of cobalt and manganese salts as catalysts. It can be prepared also by the oxidation of benzene with concentrated sulphuric acid or carbon dioxide in the presence of catalysts. Other methods are such as by the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, cinnamic acid; by hydrolysis of benzonitrile, benzoyl chloride. More than 90% of commercial benzoic acid is converted directly to phenol and caprolactam. Its use in the production of glycol benzoates for the application of plasticizer in adhesive formulations is increasing. It is also used in the manufacture of alkyd resins and drilling mud additive for crude oil recovery applications. It is used as a rubber polymerization activators and retardants. Benzoic acid is converted to its salts and esters for the use of preservative application in foods, drugs and personal products. Sodium benzoate, sodium salt of benzoic acid, is used preferably as one of the principal anti-microbial preservatives used in foods and beverages (but it's concentration is limited usually not exceeding 0.1% because it is poisonous), as it is about 200 times more soluble than benzoic acid. Sodium Benzoate is also used in medications, anti-fermentation additives and tabletting lubricant for pharmaceuticals. The industrial applications are as a corrosion inhibitor, as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems, as a nucleating agents for polyolefin, as a dye intermediate, as a stabilizer in photographic processing and as a catalyst. Wide range of benzoic esters are used as solvents, dying carrier, disinfectant additive, penetrating agent and pesticides and manufacturing other compounds.

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

White, crystalline flakes

ASSAY

99.5% min

MOISTURE

0.1% max

COLOR, APHA

50 max

MELTING POINT

121.5 C min

RESIDUE ON IGNITION

0.1% max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING

 

HAZARD CLASS  
UN NO.  
SAFETY INFORMATION

HAZARD OVERVIEW

OSHA Hazards: Harmful by ingestion., Irritant, Harmful by inhalation.

GHS

 

SIGNAL WORD

Danger

PICTOGRAMS

HAZARD STATEMENTS

H318-H335

P STATEMENTS

P261-P280-P305 + P351 + P338

EC DIRECTIVES

 

HAZARD CODES

RISK PHRASES

22-36

SAFETY PHRASES

26

PRICE INFORMATION