ISOPROPANOL

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO.

67-63-0

ISOPROPANOL

EINECS NO. 200-661-7
FORMULA

(CH3)2CHOH

MOL WT.

60.09

H.S. CODE

 
TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 5045 mg/kg
SYNONYMS

Isopropyl Alcohol; Dimethylcarbinol;

sec-Propyl alcohol; Rubbing alcohol; Petrohol; 1-Methylethanol; 1-Methylethyl alcohol; 2-Hydroxypropane; 2-Propyl alcohol; Isopropyl alcohol; Propan-2-ol; IPA; 2-Propanol; Alcool Isopropilico (Italian); Alcool Isopropylique (French); I-Propanol (German); I-Propylalkohol (German); Iso-Propylalkohol (German);
DERIVATION

 

CLASSIFICATION

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Isopropanol is a clear and flammable liquid at room temperature with odour resembles that of a mixture of ethanol and acetone; completely miscible with water, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, and benzene; melting at -89 C and boiling at 82 C. It undergoes all chemical reactions typical of secondary alcohols. It reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents. In a fire, it may decompose to form toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide. It is produced from propene by indirect hydration (strong-acid process) or direct catalytic reduction of acetone. It is a low cost solvent in many applications as . Isopropanol is similar to ethyl alcohol in solvent properties and evaporation rate. Its high latent solvent power for cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate propionate, along with its moderate evaporation rate and its complete miscibility with most solvents, make it useful in lacquers, inks and thinners. Isopropanol is a mature commodity which is projected to grow at a global rate of 1 to 3 percent per year. IPA consumption for the production of monoisopropylamine for herbicides (primarily glyphosate) is expected to be the fastest growing segment, while ketone derivatives used as solvents in coatings and inks will remain flat or increase only slightly. Government regulations covering volatile organic compounds have been, and will continue to be, a major consideration in future planning by IPA producers. IPA is used also in the production of acetone (oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone) and its derivatives and other chemicals (such as isopropyl acetate, isopropylamine, diisopropyl ether, isopropyl xanthate, fatty acid esters, herbicidal esters, and aluminium isopropoxide). Other uses include the application as a coolant in beer manufacture, a coupling agent, a dehydrating agent, a polymerization modifier in the production of polyvinyl fluoride, a foam inhibitor, a de-icing agent, a preservative, a heat-exchange medium, and in windscreen wiper concentrates. It is also used as a flavouring agent and in household and personal care products, pharmaceuticals.

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE clear liquid, alcohollike odor

MELTING POINT

-88 C

BOILING POINT

108 C

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

0.786 - 0.788 (20/20 C)

SOLUBILITY IN WATER Miscible
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY

2.6

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 1; Flammability: 3; Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT 35 C
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

APPLICATIONS

Solvent , Chemical Derivatives, Acetone, Household And Personal Care Products, Pharmaceuticals.

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

clear liquid

PURITY

99.8% min

MOISTURE

0.005%  max

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

0.786 - 0.788 (20/20 C)

SOLUBILITY IN WATER

Pass test

COLOR , APHA

5 max

ACIDITY

10ppm max (as CH3COOH)

PRECAUTION IN HANDLING
Protect against physical damage. Store in a cool, dry well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fire hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfers to avoid static sparks. Storage and use areas should be No Smoking areas. Use non-sparking type tools and equipment, including explosion proof ventilation. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

TRANSPORTATION

PACKING  
HAZARD CLASS 3 (Packing Group: II)
UN NO. 1219
OTHER INFORMATION
Hazard Symbols: XI F, Risk Phrases: 11-36-67, Safety Phrases: 7-16-24/25-26
SOLVENT FUNCTION OF IPA

FUNCTION

APPLICATION

Process solvent -Extraction and purification of natural products, such as vegetable and animal oils and fats, gums resins, waxes, colours, flavourings, alkaloids, vitamins, kelp and alginates

-Carrier in the manufacture of food products

-Purification, crystallization and precipitation of organic chemicals

Coating and dye solvent -Synthetic polymers, such as phenolic varnishes and nitrocellulose lacquers

-Cements, primers, paints, and inks

Cleaning and drying agent -Manufacture of electronic parts, for metals and photographic films and papers, in glass cleaners, liquid soaps and detergents, and in aerosols
Solvent in topically applied preparations -Pharmaceutical products: embrocations, massage solutions, such topically as rubbing alcohol (70% 2-propanol aerosols

-Cosmetics: hair tonics, perfumes, skin lotions, hair dye rinses and permanent wave lotions, skin cleaners and deodorants, nail polishes, shampoos

Aerosol solvent -Cleaners, waxes, polishes, paints, de-icers, shoe and sock sprays, insect repellants, hair sprays, deodorants, air-fresheners

-Medical and veterinary products: antiseptics, foot fungicides, first aid and medical vapour sprays, skin soothers, veterinary pink eye, wound, and dehorning sprays, house and garden type insecticides

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SOLVENT
Solvent is a substance, usually a liquid, that acts as a dissolving agent or that is capable of dissolving another substance. In solutions of solids or gases in a liquid, the liquid is the solvent. In all other homogeneous mixtures (i.e., liquids, solids, or gases dissolved in liquids; solids in solids; and gases in gases.), solvent is the component of the greatest amount. The minor proportion substances are called solutes. The solvent offers several functions during a chemical reaction. It solves the substance that reacts with another one to produce a new set of substances (reactant) and the compound that supplies the molecule, ion, or free radical which is considered as the attacking species in a chemical reaction (reagent). The solvent is conductive to collisions between the reactants and reagents to transform the reactants to new products. The solvent also takes roll of temperature control, either to provide the energy of the colliding particles for speedy reaction and to absorb heat in exothermic reaction. The appropriate solvent should be selected based on the inactivity in the reaction conditions, dissolving the reagents as well as reactants, appropriate boiling point and easy removal at the end of the reaction. he most common solvent is water. Other common solvents which dissolve substances that are insoluble (or nearly insoluble) in water are acetone, alcohol, formic acid, acetic acid, formamide. BTX, carbon disulfide, diemthyl sulfoxide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, ether, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, hexane and turpentine. They may be classified as polar and nonpolar types. They may be classified as polar and nonpolar types. Polar solvents, like water, have molecules whose electric charges are unequally distributed, leaving one end of each molecule more positive than the other. Usually polar solvent has O-H bond of which water (HOH), methanol (CH3OH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) are examples. Propanol, butanol, formic acid, formamide are polar solvents. Dipolar solvents which contain a C-O solid bond without O-H bond are acetone [(CH3)2C=O], ethyl acetate (CH3COOCH2CH3), methyl ethyl ketone, acetonitrile, N,N-dimethylformamide and diemthyl sulfoxide. Nonpolar solvents, like carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), benzene (C6H6), and diethyl ether ( CH3CH2OCH2CH3), have molecules whose electric charges are equally distributed and are not miscible with water. Hexane, tetrahydrofuran and methylene chloride are nonpolar solvents.