NAPHTHALENE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO.

91-20-3

NAPHTHALENE

EINECS NO. 202-049-5
FORMULA C10H8
MOL WT. 128.16

H.S. CODE

2902.90.9000
TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 490 mg/kg
SYNONYMS Naphthalin; Naphthaline; Moth balls; Naftalen; Naphtalinum;
Coal tar camphor; Tar camphor; Naphthalin; White tar; Moth; Albocarbon; Dezodorator;
SMILES c12c(cccc1)cccc2

CLASSIFICATION

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

EXTRA NOTES

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE

white solid

MELTING POINT 79 - 82 C
BOILING POINT 217 - 218 C
DENSITY 0.99
SOLUBILITY IN WATER

Insoluble (3mg/100ml)

pH  
VAPOR DENSITY 4.4
log P 3.3 (Octanol-water)
VAPOR PRESSURE 0.085(mmHg)
HENRY LAW CONSTANT 4.40E-04 (atm-m3/mole at 25 C)
OH RATE CONSTANT 2.16E-11 (cm3/molecule-sec at 25 C Atmospheric)

AUTOIGNITION

567 C

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 4; Flammability: 2; Reactivity: 2

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT 79 C
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions. Hygroscopic.

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking

Material Safety Data Sheet

Google Scholar Search

Drug Information Portal (U.S. National Library of Medicine) - Naphthalene

PubChem Compound Summary - Naphthalene

IPCS INCHEM - Naphthalene

http://www.hpa.org.uk/
Naphthalene is the most abundant component of coal tar, the liquid residue formed during the distillation of coal into coke. Coke is distilled from coal to remove many of the impurities, leaving a carbonaceous solid which produces little or no smoke when burnt, and as such is used as a smokeless fuel. Distillation of the coal tar itself, can yield around 50% naphthalene, which following treatment with sodium hydroxide and sulphuric acid to remove impurities can be fractionally distilled to yield approximately 95% pure naphthalene. Naphthalene is released into the environment upon burning organic materials, such as fossil fuels and wood. As such, naphthalene is a constituent of industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions due to its presence in coal and petroleum. Naphthalene is also released when tobacco is burnt and is therefore also found in cigarette smoke. The most common current use for naphthalene is as a raw material in the production of phthalic anhydride, which is used in the manufacture of dyes, plasticizers and insecticides. It is also used in the production of some pharmaceutical preparations. Naphthalene can be used as a fumigant for repelling moths and therefore, was historically used in mothballs. Its use in mothballs has since been limited due to both the flammability and toxicity of naphthalene. Naphthalene is a component of coal tar creosote, which was used as a wood preservative, however, in the European Union its use has since been banned for amateur and unlicensed professional applications due to the health effects of not only naphthalene but also the many other toxic constituent compounds.

http://www.beyondpesticides.org/
Naphthalene is currently used in the manufacture of phthalic anhydride, which is used as an intermediate in the production of phthalate plasticizers, resins, dyes, pharmaceuticals, insect repellents, and other materials. Naphthalene is also a component of crude oil and also occurs naturally in the essential oils of the roots of Radix and Herba ononidis. Studies involving rabbits and pregnant rats have reported treatment related signs of neurotoxicity; lethargy, slow respiration including periods of apnea, and/or inability to move a´┐Żer dosing. Subchronic studies however, have found no clinical signs of neurotoxicity. Naphthalene has been shown to be a weak developmental and reproductive toxicant with detectable effects occurring only at doses associated with substantial maternal toxicity.

Local:
Naphthalene is a white, volatile aromatic hydrocarbon with characteristic odor; insoluble in water, somewhat soluble in methanol/ethanol, soluble in organic solvents and very soluble in ether, chloroform, or carbon disulfide. Commercially it is available in molten form or in flaked form. It has the molecular structure of two fused or condensed benzene rings sharing two adjacent carbon atoms; C10H8. Naphthalene is obtained from coal tar which is distilled in the temperature range of 170 - 230 C and is treated with a sodium hydroxide solution to remove phenols. Naphthalene is obtained by the isolation from pyrolysis residue oils, olefin fractions, and petroleum-derived fractions. The distribution capacity is supposed to be about 60% coal-tar and 40% petroleum-derived naphthalene in U.S.A. It is an important parent material to produce numerous substitution products used in the manufacture of dyes, insecticides, organic solvents and synthetic resins. Phthalic anhydride is prepared by oxidizing naphthalene to be used in the manufacture of dyes, resins, plasticizers, and insecticides. Naphthalene sulfonate surfactants and dispersants, however, have increased their market share significantly and are expected to drive whatever growth there is for naphthalene. Naphthalene is the major raw material for Carbaryl, used as a general-purpose insecticide. Naphthalene is also used for moth repellents, fungicides, lubricants, explosives, wood preservatives, vermicides and hydronaphthalenes (tetralin, decalin). Hydronaphthalenes are used for major raw material for dyes, resins, plasticizers, and insecticides. They are also used in reactive and process solvents, heat transfer fluid, dye carrier,  fuel additives, lubricants, ore flotation and oilfield chemicals.

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

brown flake

PURITY

95.0 % min (JIS K 2436)

NON-VOLATILES

0.3 % max (JIS K 2436)

ASH

0.1% max (JIS K 2436)

FREEZING POINT

77.5  min (JIS K 2436)

SULFUR CONTENT

0.7 % max (ASTM D 129-91)

TRANSPORTATION

PACKING  
HAZARD CLASS 4.1 (Packing Group: III)
UN NO.

1334

SAFETY INFORMATION

HAZARD OVERVIEW

Flammable solid. Harmful if swallowed. Possible cancer hazard. May cause cancer based on animal data. May cause skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritation. Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. OSHA Hazards: Flammable solid, Carcinogen, Highly toxic by inhalation, Toxic by ingestion, Irritant. Target Organs: Eyes, Blood, Kidney, Lungs, Central nervous system, Liver, Heart

GHS

 

SIGNAL WORD

Warning

PICTOGRAMS

HAZARD STATEMENTS

H228 Flammable solid.
H302 Harmful if swallowed.
H315 + H320 Causes skin and eye irritation.
H330 Fatal if inhaled.
H351 Suspected of causing cancer.
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life.

PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS

P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking.
P260 Do not breathe dust/ fume/ gas/ mist/ vapours/ spray.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P281 Use personal protective equipment as required.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P305 + P351 + P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/ physician. 

EC DIRECTIVES

 

HAZARD CODES

Xn HarmfulN Dangerous for the environment

RISK PHRASES

22  Harmful if swallowed.
40  Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
50/53  Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.

SAFETY PHRASES

36/37  Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
46  If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
60  This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
61  Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions / safety data sheets.

PRICE INFORMATION