9-FLUORENONE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 486-25-9

9-FLUORENONE

EINECS NO. 207-630-7
FORMULA C13H8O
MOL WT. 180.21
H.S. CODE  
TOXICITY  
SYNONYMS Fluoren-9-one; 9-Fluorenone; 9H-Fluoren-9-one;
9-Oxofluorene; Diphenylene ketone;
SMILES
 

CLASSIFICATION

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE yellow crystalline powder
MELTING POINT 82 - 85 C
BOILING POINT 342 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.13
SOLUBILITY IN WATER  
AUTOIGNITION  
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY  
NFPA RATINGS  

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT

163 C

STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions. Oxidizes in light

APPLICATIONS

Fluorene is a member of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Two benzene rings are fused to cyclopentane ring. It emits violet fluorescent color. It is not synthesized commercially but is obtained from middle oil fraction of coal tar. It is insoluble in water; soluble in ether and acetone; melting point 116-117 C. It plays important part in metallocene catalysts as a ligand. It is used in the formation of polyradicals for resins. It is used in manufacturing antimalaria drugs and other pharmaceuticals. Fluorene family compounds are base materials for dyes and optical brightening agents. They have useful functions such as light and temperature sensitivity, heat resistance, conductivity, emittability, corrosion resistance and detection of amino groups. They are used in the applications of  thermo and light sensitizer, liquid crystal chemistry, luminescence chemistry, spectrophotometric analysis, molecular chemistry, organometallic-complexes and biochemorphology industry. Oxidation of fluorenean occur readily at the most reactive position 9. 9-Fluorenone has been investigated as an attractive element in organic solar cells, and display devices. 
SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

yellow crystalline powder
ASSAY (G.C)

99.5% min

MELTING POINT

82 C min

LOSS ON DRYING

0.5% max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 25kgs in fiber drum
HAZARD CLASS  
UN NO.

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (also called polynuclear hydrocarbons) have two or more single or fused aromatic rings if a pair of carbon atoms is shared between rings in their molecules. In particular, the term 'PAH' refers to the compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen atoms while the wider term 'polycyclic aromatic compounds' includes the alkyl-substituted derivatives and functional derivatives such as nitro- and hydroxy-PAH as well as the heterocyclic analogues, which contain one or more hetero atoms in the aromatic structure. PAHs exist in various combinations that manifest various functions such as light sensitivity, heat resistance, conductivity, emittability, corrosion resistance and physiological action. The simplest examples are naphthalene having two benzene rings side by side and biphenyl having two bond-connected benzene rings. PAHs are not found in synthetic products and are non-essential for the growth of living cells. The general characteristics of PAH describe high melting- and boiling-points (they are solid), low vapour pressure, and very low water solubility, decreasing with increasing molecular weight whereas resistance to oxidation, reduction, and vapourization increases. Vapour pressure tends to decrease with increasing molecular weight. PAHs are highly lipophilic and readily soluble in organic solvents. The lower molecular weight PAHs of 2 or 3 ring groups such as naphthalenes, fluorenes, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes have toxicity which tends to decrease with increasing molecular weight. PAHs are not synthesized chemically for industrial purposes but are isolated from concentrated coal-tar products (or from pyrolysis of coal hydrocarbons) followed by subsequent purification through repeated distillation and crystallization. Some PAHs such as naphthalene are also obtained from the concentration of the high boiling residual oil (and asphalt) derived from crude petroleum refinery processing. These PAHs are mostly used as intermediaries in pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, photographic products, thermosetting plastics, lubricating materials, and other chemical industries. General uses are;
  • Acenaphthene: Intermediate for naphthalic acids, naphthalic anhydride (intermediate for pigments) and for acenaphthylene (intermediate for resins); Intermediate for dyes, soaps, pigments, pharmaceuticals, insecticide, fungicide, herbicide and plant growth hormones. It is used to manufacture plastics and as an agent for inducing polyploidy.
  • Acridine: Dye and pharmaceutical manufacturing
  • Anthracene: Its oxidation yields anthraquinone, the parent substance of a large class of dyes and pigments; .diluent for wood preservatives; scintillant (for detection of high-energy radiation)
  • Fluoranthene: manufacturing fluorescent and vat dyes, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
  • Fluorene: basic subsance for production of dyes, pigments, pesticides, thermoset plstic and pharmaceuticals; manufacturing fluorenone (mild oxidizing agent)
  • Naphthalene: In the production of phthalic anhydride, carbaryl insecticide, beta-naphthol, tanning agents, moth repellent, and surfactants - naphthalene: main use: production of phthalic anhydride (intermediate for polyvinyl chloride plasticizers); also, production of azo dyes, surfactants and dispersants, tanning agents, carbaryl (insecticide), alkylnaphthalene solvents (for carbonless copy paper), and use without processing as a fumigant (moth repellent)
  • Phenanthrene: manufacturing phenanthrenequinone (intermediate for pesticides); manufacturing diphenic acid (intermediate for resins)
  • Pyrene: manufacturing perinon pigments
  • Quinoline: solvent for resins & terpines; decarboxylation agent; parent compound to make drugs, fungicides, biocides, alkaloids, dyes, rubber chemicals and flavoring agents

Precise PAHs, specific refined products are used also in the field of electronics, functional plastics and liquid crystals. Pharmaceutical and agricultural PAHs obtained from coal tar are such materials as indole, indolizine, indene, quinoline, quinalidine, isoquinoline and their derivatives. High boiling-point special solvent are such materials as tetoralin, decaline, methyl-naphthalenes. Coumarins and dihydrocoumarins which can be obtained from coal tar are PAHs used in perfumery. Thermosensitive paper sensitizer PAHs are such materials as p-benzylbiphenyl and ethylbiphenyl.

EXAMPLES OF PAH PARENT COMPOUNDS

PENTALENE 

INDENE 

PENTALENE

INDENE (CAS RN: 95-13-6)

NAPHTHALENE 

 

NAPHTHALENE (CAS RN: 91-20-3)

AZULENE (CAS RN: 275-51-4)

HEPTALENE 

BIPHENYLENE 

HEPTALENE

BIPHENYLENE (CAS RN: 259-79-0)

as-INDACENE 

s-INDACENE 

as-INDACENE

s-INDACENE

ACENAPHTHALENE 

 FLUORENE

ACENAPHTHALENE (CAS RN: 83-32-9)

FLUORENE (CAS RN: 86-73-7)

PHENALENE 

ANTHRACENE 

PHENALENE (CAS RN: 203-80-5)

ANTHRACENE (CAS RN:120-12-7)

FLUORANTHENE 

ACEPHENANTHRYLENE 

FLUORANTHENE (CAS RN: 206-44-0)

ACEPHENANTHRYLENE

TRIPHENYLENE 

PYRENE 

TRIPHENYLENE (CAS RN: 217-59-4)

PYRENE (CAS RN: 129-00-0)

CHRYSENE 

NAPHTHACENE 

CHRYSENE (CAS RN: 218-01-9)

NAPHTHACENE (CAS RN: 92-24-0)

PLEIADENE 

PICENE 

PLEIADENE (CAS RN: )

PICENE (CAS RN: 213-46-7)

PERYLENE 

PENTAPHENE 

PERYLENE (CAS RN: 198-55-0)

PENTAPHENE (CAS RN: 222-93-5)

 

TETRAPHENYLENE

PENTACENE (CAS RN: 135-48-8)

TETRAPHENYLENE (CAS RN: 212-74-8)

RUBICENE 

CORONENE 

RUBICENE (CAS RN: 197-61-5)

CORONENE (CAS RN: 191-07-1)

PYRANTHRENE 

OVALENE 

PYRANTHRENE (CAS RN: 191-13-9)

OVALENE (CAS RN:190-26-1)