n-BUTYL BROMIDE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO

109-65-9

n-BUTYL BROMIDE

EINECS NO.

203-691-9

FORMULA CH3(CH2)3Br
MOL WT.

137.02

H.S. CODE 2903.30
TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 2761 mg/kg
SYNONYMS 1-Bromobutane; 1-Butyl bromide;

SMILES

 

CLASSIFICATION

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE

clear to yellow liquid

MELTING POINT -112 C
BOILING POINT 101 - 102 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.28
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Very slightly soluble
AUTOIGNITION 265 C
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY 4.72
NFPA RATINGS Health: 2 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT

20 C

STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions. Oxidizes in light

APPLICATIONS

Halogenoalkanes, also known as haloalkanes or alkyl halides, are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. In carbon-halogen bond, halogens have significantly greater electronegativities than carbon except iodine. In result, this functional group is polarized so that the carbon is electrophilic and the halogen is nucleophilic. Halogenoalkanes are can be classified depending on the halogen atom position on the chain of carbon atoms. The carbon which is attached with the halogen atom is linked up with only one other alkyl group in primary halogenoalkanes, whereas directly linked up with two and three other alkyl groups in secondary halogenoalkanes and tertiary halogenoalkanes respectively. In some case, primary halogenoalkanes are counted even though there are no alkyl groups attached to the carbon with the halogen on it. Three characteristics provide important influences on the chemical behavior of halogenoalkanes, these are electronegativity, covalent bond strength and the relative stability of the corresponding halide anions.  Fluoroalkanes have the strongest of the carbon-halogen covalent bonds so that they are unreactive. This is stronger single bond than a carbon-carbon bond. The carbon-chlorine covalent bond is slightly weaker than a carbon-carbon bond, and the bonds to the other halogens are weaker. The stability may be estimated from the relative acidities of the H-X acids. All the hydrohalic acids are very strong, but with small differences in the direction HCl < HBr < HI, with the exception of HF. Halogenoarenes, also called haloarene, or aryl Halide, are  an organic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an aromatic ring have been replaced by halogen atoms. The Haloarenes exhibit many differences compare to haloalkanes in the method of preparation and their chemical and phisical properties. Haloalkanes are used in as refrigerants, solvents, blowing agents, aerosol propellants, fire extinguishing media , and in semiconductor device fabrication. One of big consumption of halogenoalkanes (properly speaking, halogenoalkenes) is as a raw material to prepare plastics such as PVC [poly(chloroethene)] from chloroethene and PTFE [poly(tetrafluoroethene)] from tetrafluoroethene. Halogenoalkanes and halogenoarenes react with lots of compounds resulting in a wide range of different target substances. They are useful intermediates in making other organic compounds.
  • Summary of substitution and elimination reaction based on alkyl group structure
Alkyl Halides

SN1 and E1

SN2 and E2

Primary (RCH2X) Neither SN1 nor E1 occur both SN2 and E2 will occur
(S
N2 preferred. E2 preferred when sterically hindered base is used)
Secondary (R2CHX) will occur slowly in high dielectric ionizing solvents
( S
N1 preferred)
both SN2 and E2 will occur
(S
N2 preferred if base is weaker than acetate, pKa = 4.8, E2 preferred if base is strong)
Tertiary (R3CX) both SN1 and E1 will occur
(S
N1 preferred)
No SN2 will occur
E2 will dominate if base is strong

Allyl (H2C=CHCH2X)

will occur slowly in high dielectric ionizing solvents Rapid SN2 for primary and secondary halides but slow for tertiary. E2 when nucleophile is basic.

Benzyl (C6H5CH2X)

will occur slowly in high dielectric ionizing solvents Rapid SN2 for primary and secondary halides but slow for tertiary. E2 when nucleophile is basic.
  • SN1 and SN2 reaction order based on alkyl group structure
    • SN2 :  CH3X (100%) > RCH2X > R2CHX > R3CX
    • SN1 :  CH3X < RCH2X < R2CHX < R3CX (100%)
  • Nucleophilicity order
    • F- < Cl- < Br- < I-  In a protic solvent which decrease SN2 rate due to solvating nucleophile
    • F- > Cl- > Br- > I- In a polar aprotic solvent which increase SN2 reaction due to no solvating nucleophile
    • F- > Cl- > Br- > I-  SN2 in the gas phase
(Both protic and aprotic polar solvent  enhance SN1 due to the stabilization of the carbocation intermediate)
  • Leaving group Among halogens: I > Br > Cl > F

1-Bromobutane, also known as n-butyl bromide is a primary alkyl halide, with the formula CH3CH2CH2CH2Br . It is colorless liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in ethanol and ether; melting point -112 C; boiling point 101 - 102 C. It is used as an alkylating agent to introduce the butyl groups to form carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. They are also used as  intermediate to form alkylated amines and alkylated metallic compounds. The end products include pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavours and fragrances. Some examples of C4 bromide compounds include

Product

CAS RN

2-Bromobutane 78-76-2
1,3-Dibromobutane 107-80-2
N-Butyl bromide 109-65-9
1,4-Dibromobutane 110-52-1
tert-Amyl bromide 507-36-8
alpha-Butylene dibromide 533-98-2
(R',R')-2,3-Dibromobutane 598-71-0
1,2,3-Tribromobutane 632-05-3
1,2,3,4-Tetrabromobutane 1529-68-6
1,1,2-Tribromobutane 3675-68-1
1,2,2-Tribromobutane 3675-69-2
2,3-Dibromobutane 5408-86-6
(R',S')-2,3-Dibromobutane 5780-13-2
1,2-Epoxy-4-bromobutane 13287-42-8
Bromobutane 26602-89-1
2,2-Dibromobutane 50341-35-0
2,2,3-Tribromobutane62127-47-3
SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

clear to yellow liquid

ASSAY (G.C)

99.0% min

COLOR, APHA

50 max

1-BUTANOL

0.5% max

WATER

0.1% max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 250kgs in drum
HAZARD CLASS 3 (Packing group: III)
UN NO.

1126

REMARKS